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Ethics Opinions by Subject

Advisory ethics opinions are not binding.

Accepting

Employment from heir hunting service 77-897-3

Employment from tax advisory company to represent taxpayers seeking tax reductions 64-29

ACLU not provider of group legal services 70-48

After representing husband, advising wife she has newly created cause of action for same matter 71-46

Announcements

Availability to consult or associate on certain cases 70-5970-61

Change of firm name 67-8

Departure from law firm 93-4

Leaving military service 70-59

Merger with another firm 67-35

Opening of office 67-35

Associate notifying clients of departure from law firm 93-4

Association urging members to employ particular lawyer for litigation 74-25

Barter exchange membership 84-2

Books

Biographical sketch in CLE manuals 64-30

Publicity 71-61

Brochures

Describing lawyer referral service distributed in hospitals 75-30

Published by The Florida Bar provided by law firm to bank for distribution 64-32

Business cards left with bank officer for referrals 62-69

Candidate-attorney passing out cards 63-35

Chat rooms A-00-1 (Rev)

Chatbots and generative AI 24-1

Checks identifying lawyer as attorney at law 65-14

Contacting prospective clients when friend of lawyer asks lawyer to prepare wills for him and colleagues 65-20

Corporate director's law firm identified in annual report 75-11

Degrees listed 88-2

Donation of legal service for auction by charity 86-9

Dual professions 78-1479-388-1594-602-8

Educational programs open to public 67-42

Endorsement of political candidate by lawyer 62-45

Faculty members listing J.D.'s in university publication 69-5

Former judge's use of title "judge" A-09-1

Generative AI 24-1

Heir hunting, referrals from 77-897-3

Informational newsletters A-99-1

Internet chat rooms & bulletin boards A-00-1 (Rev)

"Jesus is Lord" included in advertisement 82-1

"Juris Doctor" used in ad 88-2

Law firm establishing so-called hotline to make referrals only to that firm 88-13

Lawyer who issues title insurance policies advising purchasers of real estate that the owner's coverage is available 69-25

Marketing director, permissible activities 89-4

Mediation practice 94-6

Minister/attorney displaying ordination certificate in office 69-38

Misrepresentation 88-13

Newsletters A-99-1

Newspaper columns and articles 61-4062-1464-7970-3071-3175-16

Nonlawyer employees, solicitations by 89-4

Notification to clients when attorney leaves law firm 69-193-4

Notification to testators of changes in law or circumstances affecting wills 64-6064-61

Obsolete opinions withdrawn 86-7

Payments to

Marketing director 89-4

Qualifying providers/lawyer referral service 18-1

Postage meter bearing slogan 68-1

Prospective clients, newsletters sent to A-99-1

Referral service making referrals to single law firm 88-13

Referrals from

Heir hunting service 77-897-3

Insurance agent 72-6

Marketing director 89-4

Public adjusters 92-3

Qualifying providers/lawyer referral services 18-1

Requesting that title insurance company permit attorney to examine its work product for a fee 75-27

Second opinions, lawyer should not solicit the person seeking opinion 02-5

Seminars for nonlawyers 62-2067-48

Serving as corporate director and permitting identification of law firm in corporate reports 75-11

Signs

Indicating lawyer is also real estate broker 79-3

On office door, indicating member of firm is legislator 68-29

Outdoors 78-13

Solicitation and referrals by

Heir-hunting service 77-8

Marketing director, permissible activities 89-4

Public adjusters 92-3

Securities arbitration company 95-2

Store-front referral schemes 88-13

Teaching college course and accepting employment by association of which student is a member 75-10

Television programs 62-5264-9

Yellow Pages

Generally 76-678-10

Listing under both patent lawyer and attorney headings 69-8

Listings in multiple counties for members of firm having offices in multiple counties 76-6

ACLU not provider of group legal services 70-48

Assistant city attorney representing interests of employee union before city officials 64-57

Association urging members to employ particular lawyer for litigation 74-25

Foundation's attorney preparing wills for constituents and guests of foundation as part of duties 61-26

Government lawyer joining employee union 64-5777-1577-15 (BOG)

Labor union's attorney representing individual members of union 67-23

Lawyer who represented cooperative later representing member attacking bylaws change 68-16

Organizing association of bank attorneys 63-32

Practicing attorney employed as executive director of association 71-4

Accepting employment by real estate broker to prepare deed with no contact with either party to real estate transaction 67-14

Advising client to clean up social media 14-1

Agreement to pay fees and costs assessed to client 96-3

Agreement to unconditionally be responsible for client's litigation costs 96-1

Allowing client to send out form letters on law firm's letterhead 70-2771-2375-4

Assistant state attorney advising crime victims of existence of civil restitution lien does not necessarily trigger 94-2

Assisting client in illegal conduct 73-32

Bank's attorney permitting lay representative of bank to conduct deposition of judgment debtor 67-27

Breach of fee agreement by client 88-190-295-3

Client's right to choose attorney 66-3969-170-1893-495-2

Client's rights, statement of, in contingent fee cases 88-10

Commencement of representation, when deemed to occur 78-490-402-302-524-1

Consent of client necessary for representation by certified intern 80-6

Court-appointed defense attorney's duty when appeal seems frivolous 81-9

Creditors of client

Advised by attorney that he holds funds due client 60-34

Interpleader action instituted by lawyer when client withdraws authorization to pay medical bills 67-3602-4

Documents wrongfully obtained 07-1

Drafting legal document for client when uncertain as to legality 76-35

Duty to

Advise client of fee arrangement with referring attorney 90-390-8

Advise client of lawyer's compensation by third party 60-2670-1375-4076-3602-8

Clients when closing practice 74-4377-181-8

Continue representing client post-judgment 77-5

Disclose interest in business to which client is referred 72-2673-102-8

File suit to toll statute of limitations when client disappears 72-3672-36 (Rec)77-2

Mentally disabled client 73-2585-421-3

Protect client's interests when withdrawing 73-2584-302-3

Entry of judgment not presumed to dissolve relationship 77-5

Funding companies, advice to client 00-3

Indemnifying bond company for losses client fails to reimburse 70-8

Initial interviews conducted by nonlawyer assistant 88-6

Internet

Chatbots and generative AI 24-1

Internet bulletin boards & chat rooms A-00-1 (Rev)

Provision of legal services 00-4

Lawyer defending self against charge of incompetence or misconduct 70-4071-60

Mentally disabled client 73-2585-421-3

Necessity of direct relationship 61-167-1467-1595-2

Notarizing client's execution of pleadings 67-19

Notice of worthless check sent on behalf of client 85-3

Notification when attorney leaves firm 69-193-4

Opposing party contacted for information about counsel's conduct 88-4

Permitting nonlawyer representative of client to take judgment debtor's deposition 67-27

Pleadings prepared but not signed by lawyer 79-779-7 (Rec)

Privilege, decision to assert 65-770-4074-792-593-3

Prospective client 02-307-3

Referral fee paid to attorney by business to which client is referred 60-2663-1467-2570-1302-8

Referring clients to business in which lawyer has interest 72-2673-102-8

Relationship not automatically terminated by entry of judgment 65-377-5

Reporting delinquent former client to credit reporting service 90-2

Representation, when deemed to commence 78-490-402-3

Representing

Client who has discharged prior attorney where client has fee contract with prior attorney 70-18

Client's business competitor despite client's objections 68-10

Clients in controversy involving dispute with their previous lawyer 66-39

Clients solicited by lay company or persons 77-892-395-297-3

Second opinions 02-5

Signing affidavits for clients on formal or procedural matters 64-36

Statement of client rights 88-10

Subordinating right to enforce fee award to needs of client 65-888-1

Suing client to recover fee 61-3384-488-1

Wills

Memorandum concerning effects of changed circumstances 64-60

Notification regarding changes in law 64-61

Allowing lawyers who refer clients for real estate loans to represent bank 62-72

Attorney for bank

Handling loan closings 87-8

Permitting lay representative of bank to conduct deposition of judgment debtor 67-27

Preparing guidelines for use of lawyers preparing trusts 65-12

Representing bank in suit against borrower on promissory note when borrower had been charged lender's attorney's fee for loan transaction 71-18

Seeking fee award in mortgage foreclosure 87-8

Signing and mailing form collection letters filled out by bank employees 75-4

Charging bank's attorney's fee to one of parties to loan transaction 63-2164-5669-3987-8

Compensation of in-house counsel 87-8

In-house counsel 87-8

Mortgage foreclosures 87-8

Services provided to bank at nominal charge in return for receiving title examination work 64-58

Participation by attorney 84-2

Bail bond business 72-26

Collection Agency 59-4195-3

Corporate officer or employee

Director's law firm identified in corporate reports 75-11

Generally 63-12

Manager's salary reduced according to fees earned in private practice 62-7

Corporation that acts as fiscal agent for cities 61-13

Forming association for collection agency 59-41

Holding company formed by attorney to receive title to property for client 62-28

Investing in corporation of accountants 61-1961-19 (Supp)

Investment advisor 02-8

Juror investigation service 73-20

Legal fee insurance company 73-17

Mediation practice 94-6

Operating non-law business from law firm offices 78-1488-1594-6

Practicing attorney employed as executive director of private association 71-4

Professional service corporation composed of lawyer and accountants 61-1961-19 (Supp)

Real estate business 78-14

Referring legal clients to

Ancillary business owned by lawyer 02-8

Bail bond business in which lawyer owns stock 72-26

Serving as director, shareholder and legal advisor for client's consulting service and representing service's customers 63-37

Title insurance company 73-1

Donation of legal service for auction by charity 86-9

Lawyer soliciting contributions 73-1174-10 (Rec)

Lawyers forming nonprofit corporation to provide free legal assistance 71-69

Participation in charitable organization's legal aid program 66-24

Applying money received on behalf of client to satisfy judgment for fees owed from prior representation 82-287-12

Charging fees and expenses from two cases against settlement received in one case 62-15

Disclosing possession of client's funds to client's creditors 60-34

Holding company formed by lawyer to receive title to property for clients 62-28

Institution of interpleader action

Client withdraws authority to pay medical bills 67-3602-4

Deposit on purchase of real property when buyer is in default 02-6

Institution of interpleader action when client withdraws authority to pay medical bills 67-36

Issuing settlement check solely to wife when both husband and wife executed release 63-3

Keeping client funds in several accounts to assure complete FDIC coverage 72-37

Missing client's funds 61-1563-3

Partners' obligations when former partner misappropriated client funds 73-5

Placing client funds in interest-bearing certificates or deposits with interest going to law firm 72-13

Referral fee accepted from financial institution or business for placing client funds in that institution 60-2663-1467-2570-1302-8

"Specific purpose funds" 82-287-12

Writ of execution used to obtain ownership of stock certificate left with lawyer 71-67

Collection agency's lawyer

Allowing client to send form letters on law firm's letterhead 70-27

Representing clients of agency in collections 66-72

Lawyer owning 59-4195-3

Referral fee paid to 62-18

Reporting former client to credit reporting service 90-2

Salaried in-house counsel seeking fee award 70-56

Using to collect delinquent fees 81-3

Claimant's attorney communicating directly with

Adjusters in settlement negotiations 70-33

Claims personnel in litigated workers' compensation case 65-62

Commencement of representation, when deemed to occur 78-490-4

Corporate parties 78-488-1490-4

Creditor's attorney sending deceptive form letter to debtors 68-26

Former employees of corporate party 88-14

Government agency as party 87-209-1

Insured, to

Give notice of intent to file suit 59-2771-3

Obtain assignment of bad faith claim 71-3

Opposing party to make settlement offer 76-21

Interviewing opposing party

About prospective testimony 69-40

To investigate opposing counsel's conduct 88-4

Lawyer representing defendant in class action and related criminal prosecution conferring with person who is both plaintiff in civil case and witness for state in criminal case 74-52

Post-judgment communications 65-377-5

Pro se defendant who is represented in related matter 94-4

Second opinion to person represented by counsel 02-5

Settlement negotiations

Claimant's attorney sending unrepresented insured copies of letters addressed to insurance company 67-26

Negotiating with insurance company adjusters 70-33

Transmitting settlement offers directly to opposing party when opposing counsel suspected of not conveying offers 76-21

Statute requiring notice or service of process directly on adverse party 89-6

Title defect disclosed to unrepresented borrower by mortgage company's lawyer 65-58

United Stated Department of Justice attorneys 90-4

Unrepresented person, dealings with 65-5868-2668-4694-294-4

Book on legal subject 71-61

CLE manuals 64-30

College course 75-10

Educational programs open to public 67-42

Florida Bar pamphlets provided by law firm to bank for distribution 64-32

Law firm joining civic organization 66-75

Newspaper columns and articles 61-4062-1464-7970-3071-3175-16

Seeking participation of former jurors in seminar for lawyers 71-40

Seminars for nonlawyers 62-2067-48

Teaching 75-1075-36

Television programs 62-5264-967-42

AI programs 24-1

Appealing court order requiring attorney to disclose confidential information 65-7

Assets of client disclosed to bank named as sole executor in will 72-40

Client files 74-4310-2

Cloud computing 12-3

Corporate parties, former employees of, questioned regarding privileged matters 88-14

Creditors of client informed that attorney holds client's funds 60-34

Deceased client 10-3

Decision whether to assert privilege 65-770-4074-793-3

Disclosure of

Adoption clients' identity 68-3185-2

Advice given to client, to court 70-40

Appraisal of client's assets, to IRS 65-54

Assets of client, to bank named sole executor in client's will 72-40

Cash payments over $10,000 to IRS 92-5

Client jumping bail 90-1

Client's intent to commit perjury 04-1

Client's name and address, to IRS 62-24

Client's use of false name to court 90-6 (Rec)

Communications between lawyer and clients, to grand jury 71-29

Confidential information by adversary 93-307-1

Confidential information in Metadata 06-2

Confidential information through use of technology 10-2

Confidentiality in response to online review 20-121-1

Crime or fraud by client 63-2370-4082-307-1

Decedent's information to personal representative 10-3

Documents wrongfully obtained 07-1

Fear that clients will commit violence against defendant if suit unsuccessful 59-23

Funds of client in lawyer's possession, to creditors 60-34

Information about client public official, to news media 74-38

Information relevant to the collection of a debt 81-390-2

Medical records and accident reports to funding company 00-3

Misconduct by another lawyer, when information privileged 76-47

Perjury by client 75-1982-3

Prior convictions of client 86-3

Privileged information, to establish right to charging lien and defend misconduct charge 71-60

Probate client's revelation that deceased common-law husband has legal, living wife 65-50

Prospective client's communications 07-3

Separate confidence learned from husband to wife in joint representation 95-4

Trust account records 72-393-512-4

E mail encryption 00-4

Estate's attorney withholding appraisal of assets from IRS 65-54

Files 74-43

Financial disclosure laws for public officials 77-25

Funding company provided with information regarding personal injury clients 00-3

Generative AI 24-1

Identity of clients 62-2468-3174-777-2585-293-511-1

Inadvertent release of confidential information by adversary 93-306-2

Internet practice 00-4

IRS demands

Appraisal of assets 65-54

Information to complete Form 8300 92-5

Name and address of client 62-24

Trust account records 72-3

Judgment debtor's attorney ordered to testify about client's assets 65-7

Legal services organization disclosing information to funding agency 79-5

Legal services organization, intake interview not confidential 92-1

Metadata 06-2

Misdelivered documents 93-306-2

Office equipment, confidentiality in use of 10-2

Outsourcing 07-2

Prosecutor revealing in civil action against police officers confidential information received from them 76-4

Prospective client's communications 07-3

Subpoena served on attorney to testify 65-770-4071-29

Technology, use of 10-224-1

Temporary placements for lawyers 88-12

Title insurance company requests trust records of agent for audit 93-5

Transitional conference with client's successor counsel 66-2284-3

Trust account records requested

by IRS 72-3

by title insurance company 93-5

Writ of garnishment served on attorney 66-78

Accepting client referred by firm having conflict of interests 73-289-1

Accepting set fee per case from insurance company 98-2

Adding as defendant a person who paid part of cost deposit and discussed suit with attorney 68-34

Adoption intermediation 85-2

Arbitration 87-10

Assistant state attorney advising crime victims of existence of civil restitution lien 94-2

City councilman representing client re: accident investigated by city police 71-25

Current multiple representation

Advisor to city's personnel board representing private clients before or against city 59-2569-21

Attorney acting as trustee for loan company that loans money to client 92-6

Attorney employed by insurance carrier to represent defendant advising defendant of plaintiff's offer to release defendant 65-70

Both parties in divorce 60-971-4571-45 (Rec)

Carrier and employer, preparing coverage opinion letter 93-8

Client's business competitor over client's objections 68-10

Codefendants 72-5087-1

Condominium developer and owners' association controlled by developer 69-2

Continuing representation of wife in post-dissolution proceedings after husband joins group represented by partner 85-1

Corporation and principal in consolidated litigation in which their positions are facially adverse 70-5

County attorney

Also representing property owners in condemnation suits 59-269-22

Representing individual commissioner before state ethics commission 77-3077-30 (Rec)

County government and traffic defendants in county court 81-7

County prosecutor representing plaintiff in auto accident case against defendant charged with criminal violation 59-2

Defending client in two negligence actions brought against him while defending another person in unrelated negligence action brought by same client 65-13

Driver and passenger in car accident 73-202-3

Estate Planning 95-4

Heir hunting service and heir 97-3

Insurance company's lawyer also representing

Another party in friendly suit 76-277-18

Employer, preparing coverage opinion letter 93-8

Insured when clients' interests conflict 78-17

Insured when insurer restricts performance of duties 81-5

Physician in malpractice action 86-6

Legal advisor to both zoning commission and zoning appeals board 72-12

Legal aid organization representing conflicting interests 67-37

Legal service organization may represent one party or refer opposing parties to private pro bono attorneys 92-1

Legal services attorney representing defendant when plaintiff represented by member of board 69-24

Municipality in one type of matter and private clients against municipality in other matters 75-33

"Of counsel" lawyer and member of law firm representing opposing parties 61-20

Office-sharing lawyers representing opposing parties 77-3

One client in suit against another client 60-3662-5970-57

Opposing parties 61-2071-4571-45 (Rec)77-3

Personal injury plaintiffs against particular insurance company and same insurer against other personal injury plaintiffs 65-4175-1775-17 (Rec)

Physician and insurance carrier in malpractice action 86-6

Plaintiff in civil action against defendant and same defendant in unrelated criminal case 68-53

Police legal advisor/legal officer engaged in criminal defense work 76-4378-7

Police organization and individual police officers 74-34

Preparing coverage opinion letter when representing carrier and employer 93-8

Public defender serving simultaneously as prosecuting attorney 68-57

School board represented by assistant state attorney 65-72

Sheriff represented by lawyers who maintain criminal defense practice 74-3774-37 (Rec)76-378-8

State board consisting of governor and cabinet represented by firm that also represents private clients in suits against cabinet members and state agencies 65-42

Union and its individual members 67-23

Duty of lawyer

Employed by insurer to tell insured of plaintiff's offer 65-70

For personal representative to surviving spouse of decedent 76-16

Representing joint clients in estate planning, upon learning separate adverse confidence 95-4

Who resigned as director and counsel of corporation because of president's conduct 65-59

Employment by bank to prepare necessary documents for corporate employers adopting pension or profit-sharing plans to be administered by bank 64-7164-74

Fees, entitlement to when matter referred out due to conflict 62-5773-289-102-3

Former

Law clerk to federal judge performing legal services for trustee in bankruptcy matter in which he was formerly involved 76-24

Partner of hospital president defending medical staff in suit based on actions taken by staff during time law partnership existed 72-17

Prosecutors and government attorneys 60-2462-5866-6267-2169-1472-4172-41 (Rec)75-43

Former client

A represented in transaction with B, then B against A in related matter 62-59

Assistant attorney general handling litigation for state against former client 71-14

Attacking validity of document drawn for client 59-3268-16

Attorney whose firm organized corporation later representing plaintiff in litigation against corporation 69-32

Client in litigation against former client 70-5271-18

Cooperative represented first, then member attacking bylaws change 68-16

Defending owner in suit by passenger and then defending driver in suit by owner 65-56

Handling lender's foreclosure of borrower's mortgages after representing borrower in course of duties as lender's attorney 61-2371-18

Holding settlement discussions with husband and wife and then representing one in obtaining dissolution 79-779-7 (Rec)

Husband represented in divorce after both spouses represented on other matters 73-3

Joining firm representing plaintiff after having represented defendant in related suit 66-22

One member of firm representing one party to accident, then second member of firm representing second party in suit against first one 72-7

One party to accident represented in suit against second, then third party represented against first 66-77

Representing employee of corporate client and later advising corporation on unrelated claim made against it by same employee 67-16

Resigning as counsel to corporation and then representing stockholders in derivative action 65-59

Taking sides in dispute arising from transaction after representing all parties in transaction 66-6069-37

Worker's compensation claimant represented after representation of president of corporate employer 65-23

Imputed disqualification

Associate of firm representing one party moving to firm representing opposing party 65-46

City attorney attacking validity of instrument drawn by partner when partner was city attorney 59-32

City official's partner 62-5

Continuing representation of wife in post-dissolution proceedings after husband joins group represented by partner 85-1

Criminal defendants in cases on which new partner in firm worked while prosecutor 72-4172-41 (Rec)

Defendant while firm represents plaintiff 61-20

Defendant's former attorneys joining firm representing plaintiff in related suit against same defendant 66-22

Government attorney's partner or associate 60-1263-2467-1272-3896-2

Hospital commissioner's law firm suing hospital on behalf of client 74-8

Legislator's partner 73-1976-5

One member of firm representing driver in traffic court while another member represents owner in suit against driver 72-7

Opposing parties represented by lawyers sharing office space 77-3

Prosecuting someone formerly represented by partner 63-31

Prosecutors' law firms 60-1364-7266-168-3572-975-1478-5

Public officials' law firms 62-565-265-5767-1271-5973-1976-5

Representing driver and passenger in car accident 73-202-3

Representing sheriff while partner engages in criminal defense practice 74-3774-37 (Rec)76-378-896-2

Transitional conference with client's successor counsel after withdrawing due to conflict of interest 66-2284-3

Insurance arbitration 87-10

Insurance company lawyer preparing estate analyses for prospective clients of company 64-33

Insurance company lawyer representing employer, preparing coverage opinion letter 93-8

Intermediary in private adoption 85-2

Lender's attorney examining title in connection with loan, with fee charged to borrower 63-21

Loan company loans money to clients with attorney as trustee 92-6

Mayor referring cases against city 62-57

Medical malpractice 86-687-1

Municipal advisory board member representing private clients before other municipal agencies 74-27

Nonlawyer employees of law firms 86-5

Opposing counsel intends to call lawyer as witness 64-3972-274-36

Outsourcing 07-2

Personal interests of lawyer

Assistant city attorney who is president of city employees association presenting its proposals to municipal officials 64-57

Clients referred to

Bank for real estate loan in return for lawyer getting bank's closing and title insurance business 62-72

Business in which lawyer has interest 72-2673-102-8

Particular businesses or institutions in return for referral fee 60-2663-1467-2570-1302-8

Filing class action naming self as class representative, seeking to represent class as attorney and seeking attorney's fee 75-7

Government attorney's membership in employee union 64-5777-1577-15 (BOG)

Hospital commissioner's law firm representing client in suit against hospital 74-8

Involvement with securities arbitration company that solicited client 95-2

Lawyer's Title Guaranty Fund member representing client on claim against fund 66-11

Providing or obtaining title insurance and retaining part of premium 61-6070-4974-5075-675-4076-36

Representing worker's compensation claimant when president of corporation is close friend 65-23

Requiring client to sign an indemnity agreement before releasing funds held as deposit in real estate transaction 02-6

Serving as attorney for public board chaired by partner 65-57

Setting up own corporation to act as fiscal agent for cities while also representing cities using corporation's services 61-13

Subordinating right to enforce fee award to needs of client 65-8

Principal in corporation representing corporation in litigation in which he will be material witness 76-26

Prospective client 02-3

Reducing to writing settlement agreement reached by client and unrepresented spouse 66-8

Representing

Civil plaintiff after conducting related criminal proceedings as coroner 61-22

Client in restoration of competency after having been removed as counsel for same client in personal injury action 63-11

Clients solicited by heir-hunting service 77-897-3

Department of Insurance in child support cases 11-1

Insurance carrier and employer 93-8

Insurance carrier and serving as non-neutral arbitrator 87-10

Insured in dispute with insurance carrier when carrier is paying fee 70-58

Insured when insurer instructs attorney to file for summary judgment 97-1

Insured when insurer restricts performance of duties 81-5

One party in dissolution of marriage and preparing settlement agreement or answer for signature of other, unrepresented party 66-8

One spouse in obtaining dissolution after holding settlement discussions with both 79-779-7 (Rec)

Own law firm in suit against client for fees 84-4

Passenger and driver, transitional conference upon withdrawal 73-2

Securities arbitration business, lawyer accepting referrals 95-2

Successive representation

Accident victim against hotel subsequent to period in which hotel was insured by another client 59-37

Court-appointed counsel for criminal defendant representing same client in subsequent suit against state 73-47

Department of Insurance lawyer in child support cases 11-1

Former law clerk to federal judge performing legal services for trustee in bankruptcy matter in which he was formerly involved 76-24

Handling lender's foreclosure of borrower's mortgages after representing borrower in course of duties as attorney for lender 61-2371-18

Insurance company A's counsel appearing for plaintiff in action against insurance company B after A and plaintiff settle 66-7

Serving as "next friend" in proceedings to reestablish person's civil rights and subsequently representing her in proceedings to establish common law marriage 60-23

Temporary positions 88-12

Widow in airplane collision case against two pilots and then representing one pilot against the other in suit based on same incident 62-9

Supervising attorney influencing lawyer's professional judgment 78-15

Switching sides

Advising tax assessor in property dispute between city and corporation, then representing city in declaratory action filed by tax assessor 69-7

Associate of firm representing employer/carrier moving to firm representing claimant 65-46

Attacking validity of document drawn for client 59-3268-16

Conducting examination of taxpayer's returns while a lay employee of IRS and later representing same taxpayer in related IRS investigation 71-1

Consulting with two parties to accident, representing one in traffic court, then representing second one in related suit against first one 72-7

County attorney representing county in condemnation proceeding after having represented some property owners in same matter 66-53

Defendant's former attorneys joining firm representing plaintiff in related matter 66-22

Department of Insurance lawyer in child support cases 11-1

Divorce action 60-9

Nonlawyer employee moving from one law firm to opposing firm in litigation 86-5

Representing group that opposed rezoning of tract and later representing party seeking similar rezoning of adjacent tract 68-12

Temporary placement agencies for lawyers 88-12

Transitional conferences held between withdrawing law firm and substitute counsel 66-2284-3

Union membership 64-5777-1577-15 (BOG)

Waiver of conflict 02-3

Adding as defendant in corporation's suit a stockholder who paid part of cost deposit and discussed suit with attorney 68-34

Business card of corporate attorney not admitted in Florida 70-44

Business card of in-house counsel 98-3

Condominium developer's attorney retaining portion of title insurance premium charged to purchaser 75-6

Consent of corporation's counsel not required to interview independently represented corporate employee 90-4

Consent required for opposing counsel to interview corporation's employees 78-488-14

Duties of lawyer who resigns as director and counsel because of corporate president's conduct 65-59

General counsel for out-of-state corporation continuing to be listed on law firm's stationery 67-38

Handling defense of corporation and its drivers from corporation's claims department 64-38

In-house counsel

Business card 98-3

Letterhead 98-3

Requesting court award of fees 70-5687-8

Role 70-3

Letterhead 68-3379-2 & 81-2 (Con)98-3

Principal in corporation representing it in litigation in which he will be material witness 76-26

Representing

Company in proceedings against former president to enforce agreement drafted on behalf of both 66-60

Condominium developer and condominium association controlled by developer 69-2

Corporation and its principal in consolidated litigation in which their positions are facially adverse 70-5

Employee of corporate client and later advising corporation on unrelated claim made against it by same employee 67-16

Insolvent corporation in litigation when needed to testify 76-26

Plaintiff in litigation against corporation organized by law firm 69-32

Stockholders in derivative suit after resigning as counsel to corporation 65-59

Advice to client revealed to prevent fraud on court 70-40

Assisting client in illegal conduct 73-32

Bail-jumping by client 90-1

Deposition testimony 75-19

Documents wrongfully obtained 07-1

Drafting document for client when uncertain as to legality 76-35

Duty upon learning probate client's deceased common-law husband has legal, living wife 65-50

False name used by client 90-6 (Rec)

Perjury by client 75-1982-304-1

Prior convictions of client disclosed by lawyer 86-3

Representing corporate client in collecting on contracts when principal has been indicted on criminal charge involving similar contracts 68-14

Revealing fear that clients will commit violence against defendant if suit unsuccessful 59-23

Withdrawal upon learning client's claim is fraudulent 63-23

Court-appointed lawyer's duty when appeal seems frivolous 81-9

Defense attorneys

Accepting assignment of client's cash bond as security for fixed fee 71-19

Acting as special prosecutors 71-971-1675-43

Advising client on ineffective assistance waiver 12-1

Also serving as reserve police officer/legal officer 76-43

Contingent fees 70-1280-5

Court-appointed counsel representing same client in related suit against state 73-47

Disclosing client's false name to court 90-6 (Rec)

Disclosing client's intent to commit perjury 04-1

Disclosing client's intention to jump bail 90-1

Disclosing client's prior convictions 86-3

Election as prosecutor 64-72

Partnership with prosecutors 78-5

Police legal advisor 76-4378-7

Representing multiple clients 72-50

Reserve police officer 76-43

Self or partner representing sheriff 74-3774-37 (Rec)76-378-896-2

Sharing space with assistant public defender 76-11

Suggesting that witness seek legal advice 75-44

Taking promissory note and mortgage to secure fee 70-12

Former assistant U.S. Attorney in private practice 60-2462-58

Loans from financing company for fees 16-2

"Of counsel" lawyer for former prosecutor's firm representing defendants in cases in which former prosecutor had been involved 72-4172-41 (Rec)

Prosecutors

Accepting appointment to represent defendants in federal court 72-48

Advising crime victims of the existence of civil restitution lien 94-2

Communicating with independently represented corporate official who initiates contact 90-4

Communication rule is applicable to U.S. Department of Justice prosecutors 90-4

Concurrently serving as judge 69-26

Defending case accepted before election as prosecutor 64-72

Law firm representing public body in proceeding involving state attorney 75-14

Maintaining private criminal practice 64-7266-168-3570-3872-4878-5

Offering waivers of ineffective assistance and prosecutorial misconduct 12-1

Partner accepting appointment to represent defendants in federal court 72-48

Private practice after government service 60-2462-5866-6267-2172-4172-41 (Rec)75-43

Representing school board 65-72

Revealing in civil case against police officers confidential information obtained from them 76-4

Simultaneously serving as public defender 68-57

U.S. Department of Justice, communication rule is applicable to 90-4

Public defenders

Client consent required for representation by certified intern 80-6

Concurrently serving as judge or prosecutor 68-57

Partners or associates handling criminal cases 72-3875-23

Private criminal practice 74-45

Displaying both LL.B. and J.D. issued to replace it 68-9

Former judge's use of title "Judge" 73-2773-3175-3487-9

"Juris Doctor" or "J.D." used

In law school faculty listings 69-5

On letterhead and business cards 71-2888-2

Ordination certificate displayed by lawyer/minister 69-38

Appointed to represent respondent in emergency temporary guardianship proceedings 21-3

Duty to client who becomes mentally ill 73-2585-4

Representing client in restoration of competency after being removed as counsel in client's personal injury action 63-11

Serving as "next friend" in proceedings to reestablish civil rights and subsequently representing same person in proceedings to establish common law marriage 60-23

Disbarred lawyer sharing fee with successor attorney 65-2166-20

Employment of suspended attorney to do legal research 62-2662-26 (Rec)

Fee shared with

Attorney who has resigned from The Florida Bar 90-3

Disbarred lawyer 65-2166-2090-3

Suspended co-counsel 72-1690-3

Referrals from disbarred lawyer 65-21

Suspended attorney's name appearing in yellow pages 63-17

Terms of suspension not interpreted by PEC 63-17

Association's executive director also practicing law 71-4

Bail bond company, attorney owning interest in 72-26

Business cards and letterhead 79-3

Corporate manager's salary reduced by fees earned from separate law practice 62-7

Mediation 94-6

Real estate business operated in same office as law practice 78-14

Same offices used for law practice and second profession 78-1488-1594-6

Sign on office door indicating dual professions 79-388-15

Solicitation 88-1502-8

Specializing in real estate law while maintaining broker's license 62-1779-4

Title insurance company, attorney owning interest in 73-1

Communications with opposing party 77-5

Contempt proceedings to enforce court-awarded fee 65-8

Contingent fees 87-3

Continuing to represent wife in post-dissolution proceedings after husband joins group represented by partner 85-1

Duty to continue representation to pursue post-judgment remedies 77-5

Fees

Awards 87-3

Contingent 87-3

Subordinating right to enforce fee award to needs of client 65-8

Intermediary in private adoption 85-2

Lawyer's wife testifying on behalf of client on child custody 61-31

Post-judgment

Communications with opposing party 77-5

Remedies, duty to represent client in pursuing 77-5

Preparing answer for signature of opposing, unrepresented spouse 66-8

Private adoptions 68-3185-2

Reducing to writing terms of property settlement agreement reached between client and unrepresented spouse 66-8

Representing

Both spouses in divorce 60-971-4571-45 (Rec)

Husband in divorce after representing both spouses in other matters 73-3

One spouse in obtaining dissolution after holding settlement discussions with both 79-779-7 (Rec)

Settlement agreements 66-879-779-7 (Rec)

Subordinating right to enforce fee award to needs of client 65-8

Switching sides in divorce action 60-9

Account receivable representing fees assigned to third party 72-43

Accounts receivable assigned to corporation owned by law firm 95-3

Applying funds received on behalf of client

In one case to fees owed for another case 62-15

To satisfy judgment for fees 82-287-12

Assignment of

Accounts receivable representing attorney's fees 72-4395-3

Client's cash bond taken by criminal defense attorney as security for fixed fee 71-19

Awards 60-3367-170-5673-687-387-8

Barter exchange 84-2

Billing nonlawyer time separately to client 75-2976-33 & 76-38 (Con)07-2

Collection

Assigning accounts receivable representing fees 72-4395-3

Collection agency used when fees delinquent 81-395-3

Contempt proceedings to enforce court-awarded fee 65-888-1

Filing suit to resolve fee dispute with insurance carrier 61-33

Reporting former client to credit reporting service 90-2

Representing own firm in suit against client for fees 84-4

Subordinating right to enforce fee award to needs of client 65-888-1

Suing client to recover fee 84-488-1

Writ of execution against former client's stock certificate in attorney's possession 71-67

Condemnation cases

Contingent fee in addition to court-awarded fee 67-1

Statutory attorney's fee collected by lawyer on annual retainer 60-33

Contempt proceedings to enforce court-awarded fee 65-888-1

Contingent fees

Condemnation cases 67-1

Consulting firm that is paid contingent fee providing expert witness 98-1

Criminal cases 70-1280-5

Discharged attorney's compensation 76-2988-1188-11 Rec

Dissolution of marriage cases 87-3

Dividing with lawyer who served as witness 68-19

Improper to form law firm to evade applicability of fee division rule 93-693-7

Maximum fee schedule, applicability of 88-10

Personal injury cases 88-1088-1188-11 Rec

Refund of fee in criminal case if post-conviction relief not obtained 80-5

Statement of client rights 88-10

Costs and Expenses

Agreement to pay fees and costs assessed to a client 96-3

Agreement to unconditionally be responsible for client's litigation costs 96-1

Cost of copying file 88-11 Rec00-3

Expert witness' fee 67-4472-27

Forgiving advanced costs 16-1

Generative AI 24-1

Indemnifying bonding company for losses client fails to reimburse 70-8

Interest on contingent costs 18-2

Legal services financing plan sponsored by local bar and banks 67-46

Loan company loans money to clients if attorney acts as trustee for company 92-6

Loans from advance funding companies for clients' personal expenses 00-3

Loans from financing company for fees in criminal defense representation 16-2

Medical witness' fee 72-2

Nonlawyer time 75-2976-33 & 76-38 (Con)

Refusing to turn over file when costs not reimbursed 71-5788-1188-11 Rec

Revolving fund established by bar group to make loans to needy plaintiffs 61-29

Credit card plans 16-2

Credit reporting service used when fees delinquent 90-2

Criminal cases

Contingent fees 70-1280-5

Loans from financing company for fees 16-2

Promissory note 70-12

Delinquent fees

Affidavit filed in public record to embarrass former client into paying delinquent fee 74-30

Charging interest 68-2171-2686-2

Collection agency used to collect 81-395-3

List of clients delinquent in payment of fees maintained by local bar 64-66

Reporting former client to credit reporting service 90-2

Retaining liens 62-7165-1068-2168-3770-1771-6782-287-12

Suing client to recover fee 84-488-1

Discharged attorneys

Entitlement to compensation 88-1188-11 Rec

Quantum meruit 88-1188-11 Rec

Refusing to turn over file until costs reimbursed 71-5788-1188-11 Rec

Successor attorney's obligation to share or protect fee 68-3770-1876-29

Worker's compensation claimant's discharged attorney petitioning for fee 66-42

Division of fees

Agreement by group of attorneys not partners to divide fee if one of them probates will drafted by another of them 66-37

Attorney who has resigned from Florida Bar 90-3

Attorney who leaves firm 94-1

Attorney who served only as witness 68-19

Basis for division 73-2

Bonus to nonlawyer employee 02-1

Client 60-3370-5687-8

Conflict of interest, basis for division when present 62-5773-289-102-3

Disbarred lawyer 65-2166-2090-3

Duty to advise client of fee arrangement with referring attorney 90-390-8

Estate of deceased lawyer 74-47

Improper to form law firm to evade applicability of fee division rule 93-693-7

In-house counsel 70-5687-8

Nonlawyers 62-1864-2984-289-492-394-695-195-297-3

Of Counsel attorney 94-700-1

Out-of-state attorneys 62-388-1090-817-1

Retiring sole practitioner and lawyer taking over cases 74-4777-1

Salary of corporate manager reduced in proportion to fees earned in private practice 62-7

Sale of Law Practice 03-1

Suspended co-counsel 72-16

Temporary placement agency 88-12

File withheld by discharged attorney when costs not reimbursed 71-5788-1188-11 Rec

Filing suit to resolve fee dispute with insurance carrier 61-33

Flat fees

Generative AI increased efficiency of services 24-1

Handling closings for mortgage lender for fixed monthly compensation 66-29

Payment for services as well as costs, deposit into trust account 93-2

Per case to defend insured 98-2

In-house counsel

Bank's attorney requesting fee award 87-8

Salaried corporate counsel requesting court-awarded fees in collection cases 70-56

Interest charged on fees and costs 68-2168-6170-1271-2686-218-2

Legal aid lawyer requesting court-awarded fee 73-6

Legal fee insurance company owned by lawyers 73-17

Nonlawyer staff's time billed separately 75-2976-33 & 76-38 (Con)

Nonrefundable fee 93-2

Note for fee bearing interest 68-61

Of Counsel, division of fee with 94-700-1

Outsourcing 07-2

Payment Apps 21-2

Probate fee set in client's will 64-15

Promissory note and mortgage taken to secure fee 68-6170-12

Referral fees

Among lawyers 59-2362-5767-2168-1973-289-190-390-894-702-317-1

Attorney who leaves firm 94-1

Disciplined attorneys 65-2166-2072-1690-3

Lawyer residing in Florida but not admitted 60-1862-3

Nonlawyer paying attorney 60-2663-1467-2570-1302-8

Out-of-state attorneys 60-1862-388-1090-817-1

Paid by insurance company in return for referral of lawyer's clients 67-25

Paid to collection agency 62-18

Qualifying providers/lawyer referral service fees 18-1

Retiring attorney 77-1

Retainers

Defined 93-2

Lawyer on annual retainer collecting court-awarded fee and paying over to client 60-33

Secretarial services charged to client separately 75-29

Services provided for nominal fee to savings and loan in return for receiving title examination work 64-58

Set fee per case to defend insured 98-2

Space-sharing lawyers executing affidavits for each other as to reasonable attorney fees 77-3

Suing client to recover fee 84-488-1

Third-party compensation

Lender's attorney charging fee to purchaser or seller 63-2164-5669-3987-8

Percentage of title insurance premium or fee 61-6070-4974-5075-675-4076-36

Referral fee from business to which client is referred 60-2663-1467-2570-1302-8

Seller's attorney charging fee to purchaser of real estate 65-34

Set fee per case from insurance company 98-2

Time of nonlawyer billed separately to client 75-2976-33 & 76-38 (Con)07-2

Trust account, when to hold fee payments in 93-2

Cost of copying file 88-11 Rec00-3

Disposition

Associate leaving firm 93-4

Closing law practice 74-4377-181-8

Deceased attorney's files 74-43

Dissolving law firm 71-62

Partner withdrawing from firm 69-1

Electronic records 06-110-212-3

How long to keep 63-381-8

Property of lawyer rather than client 88-1188-11 Rec

Retaining liens 71-5788-1188-11 Rec

Technology, use of 06-110-212-3

Agreement to be unconditionally responsible for client's litigation costs 96-1

Agreement to pay fees and costs assessed to client 96-3

Expert witness fees 67-4472-27

Forgiving advanced costs 16-1

Fund financed by contributions from attorneys to provide loans secured by assignment of accident claims 61-2968-15

Helping real estate clients obtain loans 64-77

Indemnifying bond company for losses not reimbursed by client 70-8

Legal services financing plan sponsored by county bar and financial institutions 67-46

Living expenses

Advance funding company providing assistance in exchange for interest in clients proceeds 00-3

Helping client get financial assistance 65-3900-3

Loan company loans money to clients if attorney acts as trustee for company 92-6

Loan company making loans if lawyer and client sign agreement to repay loan from settlement proceeds 75-2400-3

Loan to client 65-3900-3

Revolving fund provided by lawyers to assist needy plaintiffs 61-29

Loans from financing company for fees 16-2

Advising both zoning commission and board of zoning appeals 72-12

Also representing property owners in condemnation suits 59-269-22

Assistant attorney general handling litigation for state against former client 71-14

City attorney

Advising city on legislation when partner is legislator 67-12

Appearances by assistant city attorney before state road board or department when partner is on road board 65-2

Attacking validity of instruments drawn by partner when partner was city attorney 59-32

City personnel board's legal advisor also representing private clients before or against city 59-2569-21

Former assistant city attorney representing private client in zoning matter 69-14

Law firm representing litigants in cases involving auto accidents investigated by city police 72-9

Maintaining private criminal and civil practice 63-2467-52

Prosecuting someone formerly represented by partner 63-31

Representing private claimants against city's insurer 76-18

City councilman

Partner practicing before municipal judge 62-5

Representing client in county and circuit courts 71-12

Representing client re: accident investigated by city police officer 71-25

Communication with government agency 87-209-1

Conflict of interests

Current multiple representation

Advisor to city's personnel board representing private clients before or against city 59-2569-21

County government and traffic defendants in county court 81-7

County prosecutor representing plaintiff in auto accident case against defendant charged with criminal violation 59-2

Legal advisor to both zoning commission and zoning appeals board 72-12

Municipality in one type of matter and private clients against municipality in other matters 75-33

Police legal advisor/legal officer engaged in criminal defense work 76-4378-7

Public defender serving simultaneously as prosecuting attorney 68-57

School board represented by assistant state attorney 65-72

Sheriff represented by lawyers who maintain criminal defense practice 74-3774-37 (Rec)76-378-896-2

State board consisting of governor and cabinet represented by firm that also represents private clients in suits against cabinet members and state agencies 65-42

Former

Prosecutors and government attorneys 60-2462-5866-6267-2169-1472-4172-41 (Rec)75-43

Former client

Assistant attorney general handling litigation for state against former client 71-14

Imputed disqualification

City attorney attacking validity of instrument drawn by partner when partner was city attorney 59-32

City official's partner 62-5

Government attorney's partner or associate 60-1263-2467-1272-38

Legislator's partner 73-1976-5

"Of counsel" lawyer representing criminal defendants in cases on which new partner in firm worked while prosecutor 72-4172-41 (Rec)

Prosecuting someone formerly represented by partner 63-31

Prosecutors' law firms 60-1364-7266-168-3572-975-1478-5

Public officials' law firms 62-565-265-5767-1271-5973-1976-5

Representing sheriff while partner engages in criminal defense practice 74-3774-37 (Rec)76-378-896-2

Mayor referring cases against city 62-57

Municipal advisory board member representing private clients before other municipal agencies 74-27

Personal interests of lawyer

Assistant city attorney who is president of city employees association presenting its proposals to municipal officials 64-57

Government attorney's membership in employee union 64-5777-1577-15 (BOG)

Setting up own corporation to act as fiscal agent for cities while also representing cities using corporation's services 61-13

Representing civil plaintiff after conducting related criminal proceedings as coroner 61-22

Switching sides

Advising tax assessor in property dispute between city and corporation, then representing city in declaratory action filed by tax assessor 69-7

Conducting examination of taxpayer's returns while a lay employee of IRS and later representing same taxpayer in related IRS investigation 71-1

Coroner

Representing plaintiff in civil action arising from accident after conducting related criminal proceeding 61-22

County attorney representing

County in condemnation suit after having represented homeowners in same matter 66-53

Criminal defendants when public duties limited to civil matters 67-52

Individual county commissioner charged with misconduct before ethics commission 77-3077-30 (Rec)

Property owners in condemnation suits 59-269-22

Traffic defendants in county court 81-7

County commissioner practicing before circuit judges 59-10

County prosecutor

Maintaining private criminal practice 60-1364-72

Representing

Plaintiff in civil case against defendant charged with criminal violation 59-2

Private clients against county 65-17

Simultaneously serving as public defender 68-57

Financial disclosure laws and attorney-client confidentiality 77-25

Former lay employee of IRS acting as counsel in matter related to prior IRS investigation in which he was involved 71-1

Juvenile court's legal counsel maintaining private practice 71-17

Legislators

Congressman's name cannot remain in law firm name 70-64

Employed as city attorney or counsel for special district 76-5

Law firm sharing space with lobbyist's firm 71-59

Office door of law firm showing that member of firm is state legislator 68-29

Partner

Advises city on legislation as part-time city attorney 67-12

Is city attorney or counsel for special tax district 76-5

Representing public bodies created by legislature 73-19

Mayor receiving referral fees 62-57

Municipal advisory board member representing clients before other municipal agencies 74-27

Name of

Partner on 18-month leave to work for government remaining in law firm name 72-18

Public official not actively practicing law cannot remain in law firm name 70-64

Partner

Accepting employment by hospital board chaired by partner 65-57

Appearing before public body represented by member of firm 60-12

Representing criminal defendant while firm represents sheriff 74-3774-37 (Rec)76-378-896-2

Police legal advisor representing criminal defendants 76-4378-7

Private law practice operated by public official from premises furnished for public business 72-14

Public statements about pending litigation 70-43

Representing

Board consisting of governor and cabinet and representing private clients against cabinet members and state agencies 65-42

Clients before municipal agencies while serving on advisory board 74-27

Municipality in labor relations matters while representing private clients against municipality 75-33

Public body chaired by partner 65-57

Representing Department of Insurance in child support cases 11-1

State against former client 71-14

Representing individual commissioner before state ethics commission 77-3077-30 (Rec)

Sheriff represented by firm that also represents criminal defendants 74-3774-37 (Rec)76-378-896-2

Trial publicity 70-43

U.S. Department of Justice attorneys, communication rule applicable to 90-4

Union membership 64-5777-1577-15 (BOG)

Adjusters continuing settlement negotiations after suit filed 70-33

And insurance carrier when interests conflict 78-17

Arbitrator, insurance defense attorney serving as 87-10

Attorney-client relationship with insured 97-1

Attorney-client relationship with insured or client 65-7070-5881-586-697-198-298-3

Claimant's attorney

Communicating with insured directly to give notice of intent to file suit 59-2771-3

Contacting insured directly to obtain assignment of bad faith claim against insurance carrier 65-7071-3

Forwarding to unrepresented insured copies of correspondence addressed to insurance company 67-26

Sending copy of settlement offer directly to insurance company when claimant's attorney suspects that insurance company's attorney is not conveying information 76-21

Conflict of interests

Accepting set fee per case from insurance company 98-2

Attorney employed by insurance carrier to represent defendant advising defendant of plaintiff's offer to release defendant 65-70

Insurance company lawyer preparing estate analyses for prospective clients of company 64-33

Representing

Carrier and also serving as non-neutral arbitrator 87-10

Carrier and employer, preparing coverage opinion letter 93-8

Insurer and also representing minor or personal representative in friendly suit 76-277-18

One party to accident against second party, then third party against first party 66-77

Personal injury plaintiffs against particular insurance company while also representing that company against similar plaintiffs 65-4175-1775-17 (Rec)

Physician and insurer in malpractice action 86-6

Plaintiff in action against another insurance company after plaintiff and lawyer's company settle 66-7

Duty of lawyer paid by insurance carrier to advise insured of plaintiff's offer to release insured 65-70

Fee, set fee per case from insurance company 98-2

Filing suit to resolve fee dispute with subrogated insurer 61-33

"Firm name" used by in-house counsel 98-3

In dispute with insurance carrier when carrier is paying fee 70-58

In-house attorney's letterhead and business cards disclosing relationship with insurer 98-3

Negotiating with insurance company adjusters

Generally 70-33

Nonlawyer employee of law firm handling negotiations 74-35

Preparing coverage opinion letter when representing carrier and employer 93-8

Referring clients to insurance carrier in return for referral fee 67-25

Settlement offer conditioned upon direct payment into checking account in client's name 00-200-2 (Rec)

Statement of Client's Rights 02-7

When insurance company directs attorney to file for summary judgment 97-1

When insurer restricts performance of duties 81-5

Campaigns endorsements or opposition from lawyers 61-4370-20

Former judge's use of title "Judge" 73-2773-3175-3487-9A-09-1

Former law clerk to federal judge performing legal services for trustee in bankruptcy matter in which he was formerly involved 76-24

Name used in firm name 64-2067-8

Practice before court by

County commissioner who is attorney 59-10

Former law clerk 76-24

Lawyer whose partner is city official empowered to appoint municipal judges 62-5

Grand jurors 74-6

Lawyer approached by juror 66-47

Notice of intention to interview 69-1770-45

Petit jurors 69-17

Seeking participation of former jurors in seminar 71-40

Associate

Also maintaining individual law practice 76-793-693-7

Name included in firm name 74-20

Notifying clients when departing from law firm 93-4

Bona Fide law firm discussed 74-4893-693-7

Dissolving firm disposing of client files 71-62

Employee benefits

Affiliating with client corporation to obtain group insurance benefits 64-75

Pension plan 68-58

Employment of lawyer admitted in another state but not in Florida 67-3968-4973-41

Fee arrangement when attorney leaves firm 93-494-1

Fictitious name statute 74-20

Interstate Law Firms

Generally 70-55

Name 74-4879-6 & 80-2 (Con )

Requirements for Florida presence 74-1274-4877-7, 77-9 & 77-10 (Con)

Joint venture between law firms 93-6

Lawyer temporaries 88-12

Lawyers employed by one professional association forming second professional association to work for first 73-12

Listing attorneys who are not yet admitted in Florida on letterhead 61-1468-49

Marketing director 89-4

Marriage counselor permitted to use firm's facilities to counsel its clients 72-4

Mediation department operated within firm 94-6

Name

"Associates" used in name 86-1

Deceased lawyers' names continued in firm name 64-2065-5569-2072-39

"Firm name" used by in-house attorneys 98-3

Including names of lawyers not partners or shareholders 74-20

Interstate firm using same name in Florida as in other jurisdictions 74-48

Judge's name kept in firm name 64-2067-8

"Law offices of..." 68-36

Name of partner on 18-month leave of absence kept in firm name 72-18

Professional associations 61-1961-19 (Supp)68-5869-2074-20

Public official's name kept in firm name 64-2067-870-64

Trade Names 93-693-794-6

Withdrawn partner's name kept in firm name 71-4900-1

Notification of clients when attorney leaves firm 69-171-6293-4

Office equipment, confidentiality in use of 10-2

Outsourcing 07-2

Partnership that includes professional associations 79-1

Pension plan for lay employees 68-58

Practicing simultaneously in two law firms 76-793-693-7

Restrictions on right to practice in employment agreement 93-4

Sale of Law Practice 03-1

Supervising attorney influencing lawyer's professional judgment 78-15

Suspended attorney doing research for firm 62-2662-26 (Rec)

Temporary placements for lawyers 88-12

Withdrawing partner removing client files 69-1

Attorneys writing newspaper column on legal problems 71-31

Charitable organization's legal aid program 66-24

Court-awarded fees requested by lawyer handling legal aid case 73-6

Legal services organization

Disclosing information about clients to funding agency 79-5

Employing law students to interview prospective clients to determine eligibility 70-1

Instituting suit for ineligible clients and then seeking other counsel to step in 68-2

Represent one party or refer both opposing parties to private pro bono attorney 92-1

Representing conflicting interests 67-37

Staff attorney representing defendant when plaintiff represented by member of board 69-24

Supervising attorney influencing attorney's professional judgment 78-15

Nonprofit corporation formed by lawyers to provide free legal assistance 71-69

Attending real estate closings 73-4389-5

Bonus 02-1

Business cards 71-3986-489-4

Depositions taken by non-Florida Bar members 73-41

Discovery 87-1187-11 (Rec)

Dividing fee with nonlawyer employee impermissible 62-1889-492-394-695-195-202-1

Drawing checks on trust account 64-4064-40 (Rec)

Filing court documents using the lawyer's electronic credentials 12-2

Generative AI 24-1

Heir hunters 77-897-3

Initial interview with client, conducting 88-6

Law clerks 70-1

Lawyers not admitted in Florida 61-1467-3968-4973-41

Legal services corporation employing law students to interview prospective clients to determine eligibility 70-1

Letterhead listings 61-1467-3968-4986-489-494-6

Letters on firm's stationery 86-4

Marketing director 89-4

Mediation practice 94-6

Moving from one firm to another firm opposing it in litigation 86-5

Negotiating with insurance company adjusters 74-35

Nonadmitted lawyers 67-3968-4973-41

Outsourcing 07-2

Pension plan 68-58

Permissible activities 64-4064-40 (Rec)70-170-6273-4173-4374-3588-689-489-594-695-1

Preparing real estate documents 73-4389-5

Signing

Attorney's name on notice of hearing 87-1187-11 (Rec)

Time billed separately to client 75-2976-33 & 76-38 (Con)07-2

Business cards

Corporate attorney located in but not admitted in Florida 70-44

In-house attorney employed to represent insureds 98-3

Leaving supply with bank officer 62-69

Listing residence address and telephone number 62-42

Marketing director 89-4

Nonlawyer employees 71-3986-4

Congressman's name kept in firm name 70-64

"Juris Doctor" or "J.D." used on letterhead and cards 71-2888-2

Jurisdictional limitations of lawyers in interstate firm indicated 70-55

Letterhead

"Consultant" designation 79-2 & 81-2 (Con)

Continued listing of lawyer accepting employment as general counsel for out-of-state corporation 67-38

Deceased partners listed 64-2076-42

Distinguishing between partners and associates 77-17

Dual professions shown 79-3

"Firm name" used by in-house attorneys 98-3

Firm that represents railroad company using company's stationery bearing legend "Division Counsel" or "Law Department" 68-33

Former judge's use of title "judge" A-09-1

Former name of law firm indicated 67-876-42

"General counsel" designation 79-2 & 81-2 (Con)

In-house counsel using individual letterhead 98-3

Judge's name kept in firm name or on letterhead 67-8

Jurisdictions where admitted shown 79-6 & 80-2 (Con )

Listing lawyer

Employed by firm but not admitted in Florida 61-14

Not employed in some capacity by firm 76-8

When relationship is limited to office-sharing and referrals 72-29

Who is a congressman 70-64

Who is a public official 64-2067-870-64

Multiple offices listed 65-2567-2

Name

"Associates" used in name 86-1

"Firm name" used by in-house attorneys 98-3

Nickname used in law practice 74-20

Nonlawyer employees listed 61-1467-3968-4986-494-6

Out-of-state

Attorney listed when no partnership exists 64-5970-55

Employed by firm but not admitted in Florida 61-14

Member practicing both individually and with firm 76-7

Office maintained by only one member of partnership listed on partnership letterhead 67-2

Partners who are professional associations identified 79-1

Public official's name kept in firm name 64-2067-870-64

Removal of name of partner on 18-month leave of absence 72-18

Retired member 76-4200-1

Trade names 93-693-794-6

Used

For correspondence with other lawyers regarding nonlegal matters 74-10 (Rec)

To endorse political candidate 62-45

To solicit contributions to charity 73-1174-10 (Rec)

Funding company, improper to issue to 00-3

Instituting interpleader action when client withdraws authority to pay medical bills 67-36

Settlement funds in which a third person claims an interest 02-4

Applying funds received from or on behalf of client

In one case to fees owed for another case 62-15

To satisfy judgment for fees 82-287-12

Charging lien 71-6088-1188-11 Rec

Contingent fee cases 71-5788-1188-11 Rec

Prior attorney 68-3770-1876-29

Promissory note and mortgage to secure fee 68-6170-12

Retaining liens

Claimed when forwarding attorney demands portion of recovery as fee 68-3770-1876-29

Files 71-5788-1188-11 Rec

Funds of or due client 62-1565-1068-3770-1782-287-12

Papers and property 62-7165-1068-2171-6788-1188-11 Rec

Revealing privileged information to establish right to charging lien 71-60

"Specific purpose" funds 82-287-12

Statutory liens 02-4

Advising client to clean up social media 14-1

Affidavits, lawyer signing for client 64-36

Contingent fee paid to consulting firm that provides expert witness 98-1

Duty to file suit to toll statute of limitations when client disappears 72-3672-36 (Rec)

Frivolous suits 64-21

Inadvertent release of confidential information by adversary 93-3

Notarizing client's execution of pleadings 67-19

Perjury by client 75-19

Permitting nonlawyer representative of client bank to conduct deposition of judgment debtor 67-27

Pleadings prepared but not signed by lawyer 79-779-7 (Rec)

Preparing answer for signature of unrepresented opposing party 66-8

Sending notice of worthless check 85-3

Serving processor notice directly on represented opposing party when required by statute 89-6

Settlement conditioned on direct payment into checking account in client's name 00-200-2 (Rec)

Subpoenaing records known to be not germane to pending litigation 71-38

Trial publicity 65-4370-43

Attorney pleading statute of limitations when sued 65-37

Creditor's attorney sending debtor deceptive form letter 68-2

Defending self against charges 70-4071-60

Discovery abuse 71-38

Frivolous litigation 64-21

Interviewing opposing party to investigate counsel's misconduct 88-4

Legal negligence not necessarily equivalent to ethical neglect 76-9

Partners' obligations when former partner misappropriated client funds 73-5

Reporting another lawyer's misconduct 76-4794-5

Informational newsletters to prospective clients A-99-1

Memorandum for testators on effects of changed circumstances on wills 64-60

Notification to testators of changes in law affecting wills 64-61

Requirements for Standing Committee on Advertising review A-99-1

Conflict of interests imputed to or from law firm to which lawyer is "of counsel" 61-2072-4172-41 (Rec)

Continuing relationship required 71-4972-4172-41 (Rec)75-4194-7

Fee division with "of counsel" 94-7

Florida lawyer "of counsel" to law firm in foreign country 70-29

Letterhead

Firm name includes former partner who is "of counsel" 00-1

Former partner listed as "of counsel" 71-4900-1

Law professor designated as "of counsel" 75-41

Listing lawyer as "of counsel" when relationship is limited to office-sharing with prospect of referrals 72-29

Showing address of out-of-state firm to which lawyer is "of counsel" 76-34

Relationships encompassed by "of counsel" 71-4975-4194-700-1

Avoiding impression that space-sharing lawyers are partners 70-1476-11

Collective name and common letterhead used by lawyers sharing space 76-11

Criminal defense lawyer sharing space with assistant public defender 76-11

Legislator's law firm sharing space with lobbyist's firm 71-59

Maintaining office in claims department of corporate client 64-38

Marriage counselor allowed to use law firm's facilities to counsel firm's clients 72-4

Mediation practice operated within law firm 94-6

Offices in

Bank building 78-13

Home 62-42

Hotel 62-64

Out-of-state office maintained by one member but not by partnership listed on partnership letterhead 67-2

Referral fees among office-sharing attorneys 67-21

Removal of nonlawyer's sign when space-sharing arrangement ends 71-66

Representing opposing parties while sharing space 77-3

Space shared with nonlawyers

Arbitrator 66-57

CPA 61-9

Generally